Legacy of the Kazakh Khanate in the Political Culture and Traditions
In 1991 year new aver the Republic of Kazakhstan is appeared on the map. The truth and cultivation of Kazakhstan is estimateed a thousand years. One of the telling issues is environing indigenous population’s rise, interpretation and rises of its rank, outgrowth of cultivation and cultural traditions, relationships delay other civilizations. Applying for written origins we can demonstrate that Kazakhs khanate had been formed to 1470 when on the territory of Kazakhstan in south-eastern territorys Semirechye and in vales of Chu Kazakh sultans Dzhanibek and Girey could mind the misty lumps, which had been jointed in lump denominated “Kazakh”, ‘Kazakhs”.
At the commencement of XVI date in the occasion of Kasymkhan the Kazakh khanate was strengthened, its borders were widened, syrdarya towns Turkestan, Otyrar, Sayram, Sauran, Syganak, Suzak and Chimkent were part of Kazakh khanate . Kazakhstan becomes disclosed in Asia and Europe. The XVI date is an telling milestone in the truth of Moslem universe from which the new occasion charges is began. The conspicuous east student V. V. Bartold wrote « In the new truth of Moslem in opposture to swift modify of dynasties and forces? olitical mutability, avers slight bulk and that’s why stagherd of any whatsoever patriotism, now we can see the countries establishing there. We see the Moslem force of Comprehensive Mongols in India, then Turkey, Persia ... ” Approximately at that occasion Kazakh, Yarkend khanates had been appeared in Central Asia. The Turkic Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kara-kalpaks were announced on the recitative exhibition. When the ultimate khan Taukekhan died, the force had deputed to the estimate of steppe khans and each of them was at the mind of disconnected groups of Kazakhs and the territories Kazakh khanate existed up to 1716.
At that occasion the arrangement of alieherd and rottenness had began and the end of this arrangement the aver was entity interposed in Russian kingdom. The ethnicon of “Kazakh” fond the spectry of aver is Turkic message. It is generally agreed that it instrument “bountiful man” Kazakhs were very assiduous nomads and farmers, bear had the comprehensive fat mob, valuable elapsedures, and inventive condition on sub mountain and vales of rivers. But strong environing Kazakhs and the commencemental Kazakh herd it is certain to apprehend that rise of that herd as its cultivation and averhood dated from centuries. Bibliography: http://www. toptravel. ru/bgkkfl2. htm http://kazakhstan. awd. z Turkic roots of Kazakh gregarious cultivation and traditions Kazakhstan has a valuable elapsed. Its geographical and geogregarious posture has played a paramount role in promoting the empire’s outgrowth. Located in the kernel of Eurasia, Kazakhstan has desire set itwilful at the crossroads of the universe’s most primordial civilizations and commerce marchs. It has been a fix of gregarious, economic and cultural exmodify unarranged East and West, North and South, and unarranged the main players in Eurasia. At incongruous stages of its truth, diverse avers emerged and exposed in the fix which became today’s Kazakhstan. All contributed to Kazakh cultivation.
In behind centuries, the steppes were home to a forceful aver formed by the Huns. Their kingdom comprehensively influenced the geogregarious map of that occasion. The Comprehensive Roman Kingdom in Europe stationary demolish from the blows of the Attila the Hun’s dashing warriors. Later, the Huns were replaced on the steppes by Turkic lumps. They seted distinct comprehensive avers disclosed as “kaganats” stretching from the Yellow Sea in the East to the Bstagherd Sea in the West. These avers were conspicuous by a cultivation alterable for that occasion. They were installed not simply on a roving husbanding but so on an garden symmetrical cultivation delay valuable commerce and handicraft traditions.
During this occasion, cities and caravanserais were seted in the oases of Central Asia, the territory of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia. They luminous adesire the renowned commerce march disclosed as the Comprehensive Silk Road which connecting Europe and China. Other commerce marchs were so telling including the march adesire the Syr Dariya River to the Aral Sea and the South Urals as polite the so designated “Sable Road” from South Western territorys of Siberia through Central Kazakhstan and the Altai territory. It was through commerce on the “Sable Road” that the Middle East and Europe were replete delay extravagant furs.
Major cities and commerce kernels seted on these marchs interposed Otrar (Farab), Taraz, Kulan, Yassy (Turkestan), Sauran, and Balasagun. The Comprehensive Silk Road not simply stimulated the outgrowth of commerce, it so became a conduit for alterable or-laws and cultural ideas. For copy, the comprehensive savant Al-Farabi (870-950) was comprehensively influenced by the cultivation of the commerce marchs. Born in the Farab boundary, Al-Farabi was dubbed in the East “the Assist Teacher” behind Aristotle for his proset researches in philosophy, astronomy, melodious speculation and mathematics.
The unappropriated linguist of Turkic philology Mahmud Kashgari lived hither in the 11th date. He created the three-volume “Dictionary of Turkic Dialects” which summed up Turkic folklore and reading heritages. In the 11th Century, Yusup Balasaguni of the town of Balasagun, a renowned rhymster and savant, wrote “Kutaglu Bilig” (“A Knowledge that Brings Happiness”) which is customary as having played an telling role in the outgrowth of new-fashioned gregarious, gregarious and ghostly conceptions. The Sufi rhymster Hodja Ahmet Yassaui, who lived in the 12th date, wrote a store of rhymsteric thoughts “Divan-i-Khikmet” (“Book of Wisdom”).
He is renowned throughout the Muslim universe. Part of the cultural will of that determicommonwealth is the symmetrical symmetrical architecture. Examples such as the mausoleums of Arystan Baba, of the comprehensive Sufi Hodja Akhmet Yassaui in Turkestan and Aisha Bibi in Taraz are unarranged the best preserved. Apart from this, the most primordial nomads of the territory contrived the “yurt”, a dome-shaped abundantly dismantled and light progeny made from thicket and felt, fanciful for their roving duration and beliefs. In 1221, Mongolian lumps of Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and ascititious their cultivation and values to the increasingly multifold connection of the territory.
By the assist half of the 15th Date a arrangement of confederacy had begun unarranged the herds of the Central Asian steppe. This arrangement, superficial from the diverse ethnic and cultural identities, was drawn coincidently by a low universe end and durationstyle. The commencemental Kazakh khanates emerged at this occasion. By the commencemental half of the 16th Century, the interpretation of a unmarried Kazakh herd was completed. The message “Kazakh” in the old Turkic diction meant “free” or “independent” which exactly fit the genius of the herd who had been desire aspiration for their own rebellious aver.
In the 17th and 18th Centuries the roving Jungar lumps directed by the Chinese Bogdykhans inaugurated a comprehensive layer war opposite the Kazakh khanate. However, felicitation to the bravery of the “batyrs” (knights), the decisiveness of the Kazakh pioneer Ablai Khan, the well-conceived skills of the Kazakh ‘biys’ (sages) Tole Bi, Kazdausty Kazybek Bi, Aiteke Bi, and wilful destruction of the herd, the Kazakhs staved sum capture and substantial destruction. The Kazakh khans were unfeeling to inquire the soldierlike refuge of the Russian Empire, which stationary led to Kazakhstan’s privation of kingdom in 1871. For a occasion, the necessity of Kazakhstan was tied to the
European copy of gregarious outgrowth and the necessity of the Russian Aver and its herds. Behind the 1917 manner Soviet force was recognized in Kazakhstan. Kazakhs suffered comprehensively below Soviet coerce. Due to the unfeeling collectivization in the 1930s, hunger caused the demise of 1. 5 darling Kazakhs, which was past than 40 percent of the herd. Hundreds of thousands Kazakhs fled to China and elsewhere. The brightest and the best of the herd were repressed and frequently shot stationary. The regime’s ultimate throb was the merciless coercion of the Kazakh herd on December 17, 1986 as they took to the streets inquireing right.
Many attend this the commencement of the end for the once masterful Soviet Union. Kazakhstan proclaimed its insurrection on December 16, 1991, and Nursultan Nazarbayev was democratically elected the commencemental President of the empire. Bibliography: Kiessling, Kerstin Lindahl. “Conference on the Aral Sea: Women, Children, Heartiness and Environment. ” Ambio Vol. 27, No. 7 (November, 1998): 560-564. Weiner, Douglas. A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Refuge from Stalin to Gorbachev. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Soviet transinterpretation of Kazakh connection and will in gregarious cultivation and traditions Arguably the most perfect economic management assiduous by Marxist-fashioned legislations and the Soviet Union was that of unwandering and industrial collectivization. Forcing persomal Soviets to eliminate aver-controlled farms and industrial interpretation projects, the Soviet collectivization programs generally had two overarching purposes: the ideological discharge of the Soviet circuit from rank antagonisms and the concupiscent parasitism of “kulak” banditry, and the economic information of a fiscally wilful-sufficient Marxist connection.
Soviet republics endured two main miens of collectivization that yielded twain salubrious and catastrophic commoditiess. The Stalin legislation (1922-53) inaugurated collectivization projects as a instrument to improve “socialism in one empire,” delay an industrialized war muniment and a polite-fed population thoroughly bountiful of the capitalist entrance. As the Comintern and NATO plunged into the Cold War, the Khrushchev legislation (1953-64) reimposed unwandering collectivization delay the so-designated “Virgin
Lands Program” specifically delay the fixed of bountifuling the USSR from humiliating dependency on Western capitalist stay imports. Soviet collectivization made practicable economic and industrial achievements that would inadequately bear been unusable. However, the clamorous acquirements of collectivization came at a appalling cost, straightway creating some of the most horrendous ethnical and environmental misfortunes of the twentieth date.
In twain miens of Soviet collectivization, the herd of Kazakhstan endured by far the belabor of these disasters, abstinence man-made famines and detriment, irretrievable environmental desiccation, the spontaneous transinterpretation of the unimpaired Aral Sea to conspicuous overthrow, lump departure and dismemberment, and astronomical occurrence. Well-balanced worse, the assist mien of collectivization (the Virgin Condition Campaign) simply exacerbated the lost environmental tragedies of the commencemental mien.
These disasters are unimpairedly superficial from the will of collectivization. 1 Despite the Soviets' ideological insistence on the benefits of collectivization programs in Kazakhstan, the Kazakh herd accustomed far comprehensiveer abstinence and mishap than they profited, and are stationary struggling to recruit from the ecological consequences well-balanced today. It must be unquestioned that the Soviet Union never planned to straightway lay-on any substantial misfortune on the Soviet republics or the Kazakh herd.
It must so be readily emphasized that the Soviet collectivization management stationary contributed to unquestionable industrial, gregarious, cultural, and encroachment achievements, which transformed tribal Kazakhstan into a new-fashioned republic and an exporter of anything from steel, to cotton, to Snow Queen® vodka. But the cost that the Kazakh herd were unfeeling to pay was far too haughty. Twain miens of collectivization bear lay-oned an persistent will of unwandering overthrow, economic discouragement, substantial nourishment, and environmental misfortune that far outbalance the benefits of the unfeeling proletarian discharge brought by the Soviet Union.
Unfortunate for the Kazakhs, the mournful will of hapless Soviet agro-economic management did not decline delay the Berlin Wall, and it may demand centuries to recruit Stalin's commencemental mien of Soviet collectivization represents abundantly the belabor substantial and environmental base of Kazakh truth. The collectivization example began closely delayout-delay behind the last incorporation of the Kazakh lumps and polities into the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) in 1936.
The unwandering immanent of the inventive and peculiar Kazakh steppe was perceived as an precious origin of appalling gregarious output for the aver. As in the other, of-late “liberated” herds newly incorporated into the USSR, those Kazakhs that were amply absorbed into Soviet connection through unfeeling collectivization would stationary like telling benefits that would bear inadequately been impracticable for the semi-roving Kazakhs, such as hypothetically near-universal literacy and encroachment, the outgrowth of symmetricalized cities and transportation systems, heartiness concern, job assurance, and livelihood.
Although the mainity of these benefits owe themselves to Soviet management rather than collectivization itself, these acquirements must be weighed delay the mournful consequences if we are to determine that collectivization had an overall denying commodities on Kazakh connection.
Bibliography: CNN. com. “Athrax 'occasion bomb' ticking in Aral Sea, researchers say. ” CNN. http://www. cnn. com/WORLD/asiapcf/9906/21/anthrax. island/ Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Krech, Shepard, John Robert McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant. Encyclopedia of Universe Environmental History: A-E. New York: Routeledge Press, 2004.