The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Correlativeness Betwixt Prescribe of Bilingualism and Impressible Ability: A Critical Argument and Some New Longitudinal Plea 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n size such that the prototype of succeeding studies o n bilingualism became throng coincidences of counteractd bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts equalityed o n mismismisalienate alterables. Second, the upshots served to appease cornnisingly held frights apexring-to-to the products of bilingual teaching. amely, that it would fruit retarded. out-of-sorts educated, anomie living-souls externally burst to either ethnolinguistic throng and unfitted of functioning in either displan (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual teaching would not produce, the weigh regularityatic, a gregarious or impressible Frankenstein. In this paragraph, we procure a shabby retrospect of inquiry anterior to Peal a n d Lambert’s weigh and aggravate late studies o n bilingualism and conception (for a n precedent retrospect behind a occasion a linguistic standpoint, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n extensive and minute retrospect of the primitive 6 decades of inquiry, see Diaz, 1983).In the plan o f t h e retrospect. we summit out twain contingently and styleologica~ weaknesses inbred in the usual bilingual-monolingual coincidence. In dissociation, we presassured the fewness o f desireitudinal investigations that sanction for the tribute of avowments apexring-to-to the cause-consequence kinsmen betwixt bilingualism and impressible abilities. Then, we fame antecedent upshots from our own weigh. which strives to punish for these weaknesses. We classifyinate behind a occasion some contingently speculations anxietying the kind of the kinsmenhip betwixt bilingualism and cogitation. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a tract entitled “The Community of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The inquiry, conducted in Montlegitimate behind a occasion 10-year-old upshot, assimilated the act of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-weighty topics on a multiplicity of gauge trials of conception. In discoincidence to arrangeer inquiry on bilingualism and conception, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that tdevisee bilingual exemplification paradeed loftier act o n metes of oral conception and o n nonoral trials “involving concept-construction o r figureic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What unanalogousiated the weigh from its archaic communitys was the wariness behind a occasion which Peal and Lambert exercised manage counteract exemplification indulgent. They hatch a eminence betwixt gentleman, “balanced bilinguals” who are expert in twain tdevisee primitive (11) and forsake displan (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for sundry reasons, permit not yet attained agemismisalienate abilities in tdevisee forsake yarn. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual comprehends one displan greatly amend than the other, and does not use his forsake displan in message.T h e gentleman (or counteractd) bilingual masters twain at a n future age and has pliancy behind a occasion twain as resources of message [p. 61. ” Into tdevisee exemplification of bilinguals, singly those opiscarcity “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s weigh had tangible contact on two fronts. First, it rising the sense of inquiryers on the example of excellenting appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Psychological studies of the community betwixt bilingualism and impressible abilities began in the future 1920s out of anxiety rising by the beautiful of psychometric trials o f conception.The anxiety was that bilingual upshot would test from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in shape, neutralize [air tribute o f tdevisee psychological abilities and practicable. The legitimateity that the metement of conception is heavily topic on oral abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply anxietyed (and rightlargely so! ) environing the fibre o f such trials for bilingual upshot. As expected, the seniority of studies anterior to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) weigh set that bilinguals were linguistically blemished in coincidence to tdevisee monolingual counterparts. Among other inventions, bilinguals were paraden t o permit blemished knee (Carrow, 1957). inferior gauges in written settlement, aggravate dogmatical falsitys (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a opineably gentle glossary (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt judgment was that bilinguals tested from a so-named “displan laborericap” (see retrospect5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, agreeing judgments environing bi1inguals’“lanpuagc laborericap” led too straightly to statcincnts anxietying the privative elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a expressive inquirying of the fibre of psychometric trialsof conception for this population. Negative, and rather acrimonious, avowments condemning bilingualism as a gregarious worry (Epstein, 1905) or as “a endurance destitute of indubittelling custom” (Yoshioka, 1929) were spiritnear in the future literary-works. In concise, the meted displan laborericap of bilinguals was expounded as a linguistic laziness that deeply unsuppostelling upshot’s psychological harvest and academic act up to the plantation years (Saer, 1940). The seniority of future studies in the area, plaintually, tested from a extensive file of styleological examples, and as a upshot, most ordinary investigatorsin the province appraise the judgments of future studies as altogether uncommon (see Cummins, 1976). A good-natured-tempered-tempered estimate of future studies, for archetype, failed to manage for throng separations in socioeconomic standing betwixt bilingual and monolingual exemplifications.As future as 1930, McCarthy summited out that bilingualism in the US was expressively confounded behind a occasion low socioeconomic standing. She set that aggravate than half of the bilingual nurture upshot could be classificationatizeified as cognate t o families from the modern strive occupational throng. Parallel the selfselfresembling lengths, Fukuda (1925) alerted inquiryers to the legitimateity that eminent-scoring English-weighty topics were for-the-most-sunder in the occupational and constabulary classificationatizees; he fameed a corcommunity of 3 3 betwixt the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Lamina and the Binet IQ in his exemplification.Nevertheless, anterior to the future 1960s. most studies investigating the proceeds of bilingualism on upshot’s conception did not capture into avowation throng separations in socioeconomic standing. A forsake ocean styleological dishonor of future studies is that it was regularly dubious whether the “bilingual” topics were in legitimateity copious in twain yarns. Brunner (l929), for archetype, conjectured that upshot’s bilingualism would be estimated by the alienness of tdevisee committers.Brunner disconnected his bilingual exemplification into three categories: (1) twain committers born in this country; (2) one committer born brief and the other detached; and (3) twain committers born detached. The genus was barely conjectured to avow sundry prescribes of upshot’s bilingualism. In other studies, the exemplification’s bilingualism was assessed through lengthage names or plain establish of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a retrospect). As yield investigators permit regularly-again-and-repeatedly avowd, it is unustelling to intentate whether the bilingual topics of divers studies were verily bilingual or right monolingual of a lad yarn. Toward the end of the 1950s, inquiry o n the proceeds of bilingualism paradeed the forthcoming agreeing judgments. Monolinguals performed burdenyly eminent than bilinguals on metes of oral conception. On metes of nonoral power, some studies paradeed that monolinguals were too at an custom, but throng separations on this altertelling were not agreeing repugnant studies. However, consequently of the expressive styleological dishonors right mentioned, none of the upshots, plain if they were statistically burdeny in either guide, can be greatly expounded.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) weigh, de- scribed shabbyly in the vestibule, took plods to certify the indulgent O f gentleman, counteractd bilinguals. In dissociation, it recruited sagacity from arrangeer studies in manageling for socioeconomic raze. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual exemplifications for the Peal and Lambert weigh were clarified from the selfselfresembling nurture regularity in Montreal. All I0-year-old upshot in the regularity were modeobjurgate in the primal screening by indecent metes, the composite of which was used to intentate whether the cadet should be opiscarcity monolingual or counteractd bilingual. The metes were: ( I ) the apexring-to quantity of opinion procured in a engagement community work in LI and L2; (2) the apexring-to quantity of opinion in LI and L2 exposeed in a prescribe of letters; (3) the quantity of opinion customary in L2 (English) from a subset detachedd from the Peabody Resemble Glossary Test; and (4) intellectual self-ratings& power in burdeny, expoundation, lection, and agreement in L2.Children who bare in the extremes of these laminas were intentated to be monolingual or counteractd bilingual. The definite exemplification consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all upshot were administered a mitigated avowment of the LavoieLarendeau Throng Trial of Common Conception (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Radical Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French avowment of clarified subtests of the Thurstone Primary Intellectual Abilities Trial (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the judgments of precedent studies, the upshots of the Peal and Lamberi weigh paradeed that bilinguals performed burdenyly amend than monolinguals o n most of the impressible trials and subtests, plain when throng separations in sex, age. and socioeconomic standing were miswell-behaved manageled. Bilingual upshot performed burdenyly eminent than monolinguals on trials of twain oral and nonoral abilities; the bilinguals’ loftierity in nonoral trials was aggravate clfuture indisputtelling in those subtests that required intellectual molding and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than unaffected perceptual abilities.A legitimateityor dissociation of trial chargess implied that bilinguals were loftier to monolinguals in concept construction and in works that required a amplifyed intellectual or figureic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were set to permit a aggravate mixed archetype of abilities than tdevisee monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) judgments must be opiscarcity behind a occasion a amplifyed prescribe of inadventurousness, plaintually. First, as Macnamara (1966) has summited out, the mode of topic indulgent cappower permit introduced a prejudgment in gift of the bilingual exemplification.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual exemplification modeobjurgate singly upshot who chargesd aggravate a amplifyed intentated raze in the English Peabody Resemble Glossary Test, a trial commsingly used to mete conception in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is practictelling that the conception of French-Canadian upshot cappower be rcflected in a mete of English (the forsake yarn) glossary.Second, the bilingual exemplification, on the medium, belonged to a eminent amount than the monolingual exemplification; may-be the loftierity observed in bilinguals was the upshot of tdevisee having desireer charybdis to dignified teaching. And third, the quantity removal of the Raven’s trial chargess was very unanalogous for the two throngs of upshot; it, was privatively skewed for bilinguals, seeing the repugnant was gentleman for monolinguals. In concise, the impressible customs observed in Peal and Lambert’s counteractd bilingual exemplification could permit been aggravatejoyed by divers artiaxioms in tdevisee topic indulgent progresss. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A reposericted explication of this [the upshots] may lie in our style of choosing the bilingual exemplification. Those testing from a displan laborericap may unintentionally permit been eliminated. We striveed to excellent bilinguals who were counteractd, that is. together copious in twain yarns. However, when the counteract metes did not yield a distinct prognostic of whether or not a yieldn cadet was bilingual, aggravate burden was attached to his charges on the English glossary trials. Thus some bilinguals who cappower be counteractd, but whose glossary in English and French cappower be minute, would be omitted from our exemplification.The near quick bilinguals, those who permit not acquired as great an English glossary, would not be opiscarcity bilingual plenty for our weigh [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) tentative eminence betwixt bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a burdeny (and greatly scarcityed) styleological subsidy to the province. Tdevisee eminence has obduobjurgate late investigators to excellent tdevisee bilingual exemplification behind a occasion ocean wariness and mete the exemplification’s amplifyed tendency of the two yarns. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a multiplicity of studies permit been fameed in o which monolingual upshot are assimilated t counteractd bilingual upshot. In most of these studies, counteractd bilinguals permit paraden customs in divers impressible abilities, such as concept construction (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic apprisedness (Cummins, 1978). In dissociation, divers studies insinuate that counteractd bilinguals inarcollocate a ocean flexibility than monolinguals in tdevisee act on unanalogous impressible works (Balkan, 1970).Above all, late inquiry not singly has replicated Peal and Lambert’s dogmatical judgments anxietying counteractd bilingualism, but too has yieldn tentative endure for linguists’ avowments anxietying the impressible and linguistic customs of rising a cadet bilingually. In discoincidence to future psychological studies of cadethood bilingualism, indidiscernible occurrence studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had classifyinated that future bilingualism was customous to upshot’s impressible and linguistic harvest.In apex, Leopold (l96l), naturalized on observat ions of his bilingually rising daughter, insinuateed that bilingualism delayed an future dissociation of the engagement probe from the engagement import: “a protracted slovenliness of the amalgamate betwixt the phonetic engagement and its import (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a delecttelling kinsfolkhip betwixt the semantic and impressible harvest of bilingual upshot, namely that the dissociation of probe and import leads to an future apprisedness of the conveniionality of opinion and the arbitrariness of yarn.This apprisedness could advance, in shape, aggravate arrangenear razes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the impressible customs of bilingualism parallel the selfselfresembling lengths; in his own opinion (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the liking “from the prison of firm displan and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations permit been trialed tentativey by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a noteworthy courteous-designed and manageled weigh of English. Afrikaans bilingual upshot in South Africa. The bilingual exemplification consisted of plantation nurture upshot who had been rising in a one idiosyncratic-one displan environment. imilar to the office of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The exemplification’s prescribe of bilingualism was intentated by divers metes, including minute interviews behind a occasion committers and trainmasters as courteous as a unconcealeded trial of the upshot’s glossary in twain yarns. Two approximate monolingual exemplifications, one English and one Afrikaans. were modeobjurgate in the weigh. in a primitive trial, upshot were administered a semantic-phonetic indulgents trial. The trial consisted of sentiment sets of three opinion each. A usual set contained the opinion cup, con, and har.Children were asked inquirys such as: “Which engagement is aggravate affect cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the engagement can or /tal implied the cadet’s phonetic indulgent or semantic indulgent, appertainingly, in analyzing engagement resemblingities. The immeasurableness to assimilate opinion on the plea of a semantic size is appraiseed as aggravate delayed harvestally than comparing opinion parallel a phonetic size. The upshots of this trial paradeed not singly that semantic indulgents acceptiond behind a occasion age, but too that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing opinion parallel a semantic rather than a phonetic size.As lancoWorrall(l972) fameed: “of the adolescent 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% agreeingly chose to expound coincidence $betwixt opinion in stipulations of the semantic size. Of the unilingual throngs of the selfselfresembling age, not one Afrikaans orator and singly one English orator paradeed resembling excellent demeanor (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall classifyinated that bilingual upshot rising in a one idiosyncratic-one displan environment gain a amount of senlatitic harvest 2-3 years precedent than monolingual upshot. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a forsake trial, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her topics to teach the names of unanalogous inventions (e. g. , why is a dog named “dog”? ). She too asked upshot whether or not the names of inventions could be arbitrarily interchangeable. Children’s repartees to the primitive inquiry were assigned to unanalogous categories such as apprecitelling attributes, functional attributes, gregarious meeting, and so forth. The upshots of this forsake trial paradeed no legitimate separations betwixt bilingual and monolingual upshot in the types of explications offered.For the forsake inquiry, plaintually, the separations gifted the bilingual upshot; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in motive be newfangled, seeing the repugnant was gentleman for monolingual upshot. Lindholm (1980) fames a weigh by Sandoval (1976) in which a replication of lanco-Worrall’s upshots was striveed behind a occasion a Spanish/Enlish. exemplification of kindergartners and third amountrs. Although tbrief was a serve gifting the bilinguals, it did not gain statistical sagacity. However, it is not distinct whether the bilingual topics were veracitylargely counteractd or barely enrolled in bilingual nurtures. More lately, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the impressible consequences of rising upshot according to Ronjat’s (1913) one idiosyncratic-one displan motive. Bain and Yu judgmentful German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals behind a occasion monolinguals from the appertaining yarns in three unanalogous geographical subsidences. The topic impressible alterables anxietyed upshot’s amplifying apprisedness of the functions of displan as postulated by Luria and weighd in works such as the power to flourish a set of increasingly multifarious guides in hide-and-affect offices.In apex, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would advance the use of displan as a self-directive utensil in impressible works. Using a mitigated avowment of Luria’s (1961) experiintellectual progresss, the upshots paradeed that, at environing age 4, upshot rising bilingually in one idiosyncratic-one displan environment were amend uttering to use twain counteractt and ccommon displan as a lead and manage in tdevisee impressible functioning. The plea too gifted adolescenter bilingual upshot, but this serve failed to gain statistical sagacity. Aggravate expressively, the judgments were agreeing repugnant unanalogous displan throngs and geographical offices.Several investigators permit explored the proceeds of bilingualism on the harvest of metalinguistic apprisedness. Metalinguistic apprisedness apexs to the power to stir linguistic output extrinsicly; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to contemplate of displan rather than lhrough it to the intentional import [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as upshot amplify, they befit aggravate captelling of contemplateing at displan as an extrinsic set of governments, as an extrinsic utensil for message. Consequently bilingualism induces an future dissociation of engagement and apexent, it is practictelling that bilingual upshot too amplify an future immeasurableness to standsummit on ‘ , and stir the structural properties of yarn. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, consequently bilinguals could direct the selfselfresembling cogitation in unanalogous. yarns, a bilingual cadet would serve to“see his displan as one apex regularity floating divers, to sentiment its phenomena undet aggravate common categories, and this leads to an apprisedness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Aggravate lately, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic management inland displan in prescribe to battle interlocution betwixt tdevisee t w o yarns.Lambert and Tucker (1972) illustrious that upshot in the St. Lambert bilingual trial occupied in some style of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing resemblingities and separations betwixt tdevisee two yarns. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic harvest of third- and sixth-amount Irish-English bilinguals. Upshot in the exemplification came from sojourns wbrief twain Irish and English were unwritten; all upshot ordinary dignified nurture tendency in Irish. An mismismisalienate monolingual coincidence throng was clarified that was equiponderant to the bilingual‘throng on metes of IQ and socioeconomic standing.A primitive work investigated upshot’s apprisedness of the arbitrariness of yarn. Resembling to the mete used by lancoWorrall(1972). upshot were asked whether names of objects could be interchangeable; they were then asked to teach or rightify tdevisee repartees. The upshots implied that, at twain third- and sixth-amount razes, bilinguals paradeed a ocean apprisedness of the peremptory ‘kind of linguistic regard. In a forsake work, upshot were yielded behind a occasion divers hostile and tautological phrases environing some poker chips that were either discernible or obscure. The phrases multigenous in two dissociational sizes: gentleman versus sham and tentative versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative avowments apex to phrases that “are gentleman or sham by efficacy of tdevisee linguistic arcollocate rather than deriving tdevisee veracity appraise from any extralinguistic avow of affairs [p. 129j. ” The work was detachedd as a mete of metalinguistic apprisedness consequently arrangeer inquiryers had paraden that, in prescribe to evaluate contradictions and tautologies punishly, it is expedient to weigh displan in,an extrinsic style.Although the act on this evaluation work was not distinct-cut in gift of the bilinguals, sixth-amount bilingual upshot paradeed a conspicuous loftierity in punishly evaluating obscure nontentative phrases. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input near air-tight, life aggravate acquiescent to yield the obvious‘can’t utter’ repartee to the obscure nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a forsake trial behind a occasion counteractd Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated upshot’s metalinguistic apprisedness usiiig a extensive multiplicity of metes, including dissociation of perplexing phrases and a classificationatize inclusion work.Contrary to arrangeer judgments, the bilinguals in this weigh did not parade customs on the Seniantic-Phonetic Indulgent Trial or on an arbitrariness of displan rask. However, Cummins (1978) fames that “the upshots of the Systematize Inclusion and Ambiguities works are agreeing behind a occasion previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous judgments in that they insinuate that bilingualism advances an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that permit been resemblesque, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a extensive file of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals paradeed a ocean immeasurableness to stir the coincidence of opinion parallel semantic rather than musical sizes, a ocean use of displan as a self-directing utensil in impressible works, and a ocean counteractall apprisedness of the meetingal kind of opinion and yarn. Also, in a unanalogous weigh (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were amend than tdevisee monolingual peers at relabeling objects and directing kinsmen betwixt objects in weak phrases.This apprisedness or flexibility behind a occasion deference to the use of displan seems to embody an expressive role in the impressible functioning of bilingual upshot. In legitimateity, divers investigators permit pretensioned that bilinguals are aggravate “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain oral and nonoral works. Although the idea of impressible flexibility has never been adequately teached (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is practictelling that bilinguals’ extraordinary use and apprisedness of displan gives to a ocean flexibility in the molding of twain oral and nonoral figures.One of the most regularly cited studies of bilinguals’ impressible flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan administered divers trials of nonoral abilities that purportedly meted impressible flexibility. The bilingual throng, as expected, performed burdenyly eminent than the manage monolingual throng in two of these metes. One work, Figures Cachees, implicated the power to rearadlawful a perceptual office, resembling to the common Embedded Figures Test. The other work, Histoires, implicated sensitivity to the unanalogous imports of a engagement.Interestingly plenty, the dogmatical proceeds of bilingualsm on these metes were greatly stronger for upshot who had befit bilingual antecedently the age of 4. The separations betwixt monolinguals and upshot who had befit bilingual at a behind age were in gift of the death but did not gain statistical sagacity. ’ Balkan’s weigh implies, as precedent indidiscernible occurrence studies by linguists had insinuateed, that bilingualism cappower permit the most habitous impressible proceeds for those upshot who acquire tdevisee two yarns simultaneously. Consequently counteractd bilinguals permit two unanalogous opinion for most apexents, it s not astounding that they parade a ocean sensitivity than monolinguals to the practictelling unanalogous imports of a one engagement, as paraden in the Histoires work. On the other laborer, Balkan’s weigh offers no elimination as to how or why bilingualism should give to a ocean power to rearadlawful and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as paraden in the Figures Cachees work. As late inquiry insinuates, the elimination cappower be in bilinguals’ocean apprisedness and flexibility behind a occasion deference to the use of yarn, as courteous as in tdevisee ocean use of twain counteractt and ccommon disway in the advisering of tdevisee impressible functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Papply illustration of bilinguals’ so-named impressible flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) weigh behind a occasion Hebrew-English bilingual upshot. When assimilated to monolinguals, the bilingual upshot in the weigh paradeed a conspicuous loftierity in figure superabundance and oral transconstruction works. The figure superabundance work implicated upshot’s power to exalter opinion in a phrase according to the trialer’s tendencys. In a usual disclosement, upshot were asked to reestablish the engagement I behind a occasion the engagement spughetli.Children were yieldn punish chargess when they were uttering to say phrases affect“Spaghetti om collected,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a resembling phrase that, although dogmatically punish, violated the governments of the pastime. The bilinguals’ eminent act on the oral transconstruction work implicated amend expoassured of alters in a unwritten inducement that is continual uninterruptedly by resources of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) permit fameed that when a unwritten stiinulus is yielded in such a way, topics older than 6 years fame hearing unconcealed alters in what the taped say says.The authors attributed this vision to the harvest of a reorganization contrivance that aids in the apprehension of ongoing yarn. The bilingual upshot in Ben-Zeev’s weigh too outperformed the monolingual throng on amplifyed aspects of a matrix permutation work. Bilinguals were amend at isolating and determineing the beneathlying sizes of the matrix, but no throng separations were set on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two coincidence throngs too performed resemblingly on Raven’s radical matrices.I t should be illustrious that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s weigh paradeed impressible customs singly on metes that were unconcealededly akin to linguistic power and on the oral aspects of the matrix transconstruction work. Ben-Zeev( 1977) illustrious that throughout the weigh bilingual upshot seemed to admittance the impressible works in a veracitylargely analytic way. They too seemed aggravate firm to twain the edifice and objects of the works administered, as courteous as aggravate impressible to feedback from the works and the expcrimenter.BenZeev teached these improved abilities in stipulations of bilinguals’ confrontation behind a occasion tdevisee t w o yarns. She discussd that, in prescribe to forsake linguistic interlocution, bilinguals must amplify a unadulterated-minded apprisedness of the structural resemblingities and separations betwixt tdevisee two yarns as courteous as a object sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this aggravate amplifyed analytic management inland linguistic edifices is infections to other edifices and archetypes associated behind a occasion unanalogous impressible works.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her upshots as flourishs: Two strategies characterized the thinking archetypes of the bilinguals in community to oral embodied: promptness to ascribe edifice and promptness to rearrange. I j i I I The archetypes they affect are catholicly linguistic, but this mode too operates behind a occasion visual archetypes, as in tdevisee liking at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Behind a occasion visual embodied the spatial reorganizational aptitude did not answer, plaintually [p. 1017). In falsification, the kind o r import of impressible flexibility is far from life catholicly beneathstood; plaintually, the studies right retrospected insinuate that the flexibility illustrious in bilinguals could fabricator from yarn-akin abilities, such as the use of displan in advisering impressible functioning or an future apprisedness of the meetingality and structural properties of yarn. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The late studies insinuate that if one assimilates bilinguals who are closely equiponderant in tdevisee abilities in L l and L2 behind a occasion a monolingual throng equalityed for age, socioeconomic raze, and other pertinent alterables and administers a mete of impressible flexibility to twain throngs, the bilinguals succeed do amend. Now, opine an fanciful (from the sentimentsummit of good-natured-tempered-tempered experiintellectual investigation) inquiry intent. You would start by exhibitation a unpremeditated exemplification of living-souls and assigning them unpremeditatedly to either an experiintellectual throng or manage throng, thereby manageling for any contrast falsity in sampling.The experiintellectual throng is establishd in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, seeing the manage throng recrement in a monolingual environment. Uninterruptedly the composition has had spell to capture consequence (Le. , uninterruptedly the topics in the place permit befit counteractd bilinguals), you administer your topic mete, making assured that the idiosyncratic who administers the topic mete is ignorant to whether the topic life trialed is in the composition or manage place. And, lo and contemplate, you meet a separation in gift of bilinguals. Under this fanciful office, one can reasonably classifyinate that bilingualism causes impressible flexibility, o r whatever impressible custom this flexibility stands for. You could too go on to consider environing why this upshot came environing and consgentleman sundry other experiintellectual places to trial your hypotheses. In what ways is the fanciful inquiry intent unaffect the case beneath which ordinary studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would summit out at lowest two. First, in the legitimate universe, tbrief is n o such invention as unpremeditated assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual throng.Most regularly, bilingualism or monolingualism is intentated by sociolinguistic legitimateitys that are, as would be gentleman of most sociolinguistic legitimateitys, akin to a extensive file of gregarious alterables. What this legitimately resources is that tbrief succeed be a great estimate of alterables that unanalogousiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than barely that the bilingual speaks two yarns and the monolingual one. It is practicable. of plan, to equality the two throngs behind a occasion deference to some alterables (e. g. , ethnicity) or to manage them statistically (e. g. , by reposericteding out the proceeds’of socioeconomic raze).But at what summit can we be acquiescent that all the rele- ’ vant alterables permit been manageled for, such that the separation betwixt the two throngs can be attributed to the estimate of yarns that the idiosyncratic comprehends? SO, the unbeliever could discuss, “While you permit manageled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you permitn’t manageled for g. ” The forsake way in which the fanciful office is unaffect the legitimateity of the studies is aggravate styleological and has to d o behind a occasion the choice of a ignorant progress (a double-ignorant is unusable, consequently presumably the topics would comprehend whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies retrospected permit we seen illustration of strives by the inquiryers to frequent the convertibility of the topic ignorant to the trialer. If the trialer is unadulterated-minded on the supposition of the weigh and in dissociation comprehends whether the topic is a bilingual or a monolingual cadet, one cannot government out unintentional experilnenter prejudgment proceeds(Rosentha1, 1976). In custom, it may be perfectly hard to strive t o practise a ignorant progress. Bilingual and monolingual upshot are most regularly set in unanalogous nurtures, unanalogous neighborhoods, and would probably parade some demeanoral manifestations of tdevisee linguality.It is, plaintually, an consequence that one must permit in liking when expounding the upshots of studies using the prototype intent. The styleological examples fabricatorming from the legitimateity of amplifyed bilingual offices serve hardy to endureing tentatively the pretension that bilingualism is associated behind a occasion ocean impressible flexibility. One reposericted disentanglement to twain of these examples can be achieved in a sometimes used intent of contemplateing at proceeds behind a occasionin a bilingual exemplification (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If prescribe of bilingualism can be reliably meted behind a occasionin a exemplification of upshot seemly bilingual and if this mete of prescribe can be paraden to be akin to impressible flexibility, then one would permit end one plod closer to judgment a unadulterated kinsmenhip betwixt bilingualism and impressible flexibility. Using a behind a occasioninbilingual exemplification, it is too practictelling to manage for trialer prejudgment. Inasgreatly as the topics could end from the selfselfresembling nurtures, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept ignorant to the trialer, it would minimize prejudgment proceeds.In dissociation to the before examples, tbrief is the implied but untested avowment environing guide of resultuality. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the aggravate quick upshot, as meted by nonoral conception trials, are the ones who befit bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a gifttelling consequence on nonoral conception [p. 131. ” One laborerle on this example would be through a desireitudinal weigh in which twain alterables are meted regularly-again-and-repeatedly counteract spell. We are apprised of right one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which desireitudinal plea were advantageous.Barik and Swain assimilated 32 low L2 achievers behind a occasion 32 eminent achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa counteract a 3-year duration (Grades K-3). They fame that the eminent achievers performed amend on subtests of analogies and forthcoming oral guides plain when primal IQ chargess at Spell I were manageled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The weigh we fame in the relics of the paragraph haranguees the before anxietys behind a occasion arrangeer studies of the kinsmenhip betwixt bilingualism and impressible flexibility.We are animated in assessing the apexring-to abilities in twain LI and L2 of upshot‘in the mode of seemly bilingual and in forthcoming them on a desireitudinal plea to intentate whether prescribe of bilingualism is akin to impressible flexibility and to assess the guide of resultuality betwixt linguistic and impressible alterables. Description of the Project The topics in our weigh are ordinaryly enrolled in classificationatizees from the Bilingual Teaching Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, common nurtures.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Placement in the bilingual program for the topics is intentated catholicly on the plea of inconstruction procured by the committers and by the trainmasters of the classificationatizerooms to which they are primally assigned. Upshot who are fameed as life scientificly Spanish-weighty or principally Spanish-weighty are channeled into the bilingual classificationatizees, occasion those fameed as predominantly or scientificly English-weighty are establishd in monolingual, oceanstream classificationatizerooms.Those upshot who fameedly use twain yarns are papply assessed for lordship through the Displan Tribute Battery, and Spanish-dominant upshot are establishd in the bilingual classificationatizerooms. . The unconcealededor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, tbrief are 18,000 Hipics, catholicly Puerto Ricans. Tbrief are at yield roughly 2700 Hipic students in the nurture regularity betwixt Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual classificationatizees; All bilingual classificationatizees are conducted on a 5050 relevancy of Spanish and English as yarns of tendency.Based on trainmaster advice, when the upshot admittance equivalence betwixt tdevisee English and Spanish power, they are establishd into the oceanstream, English monolingual classificationatizees. Thus, affect most bilingual teaching programs in the United States, the New Haven program is radical in kind, as unanalogous to the defence or immersion programs set in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional immeasurableness produced by apexring-to abilities in Ll and L2 is resembled in Fig. 0. 1 (a), conspicuous by a length behind a occasion a slope of 1 parallel which fancifully counteractd bilinguals succeed throng. This two-immeasurableness is, of plan, an’fanciful office that is liberal, and we yieldly permit no way of locating any yieldn exemplification of bilingual living-souls in irresponsible stipulations. Thus, depending on exemplification characteristics, the two-immeasurableness defined by a set of LI and L2 metes can differ. Figure IO. I (b) parades two contingently exemplifications, A and B, wbrief B avows a throng of living-souls that is aggravate “balanced” than A.The summit is that although we cannot intentate the two-immeasurableness subsidence of a throng of bilinguals in any apex weigh using a apex mete, the proceeds of prescribe of bilingualism can be judgmentful by contemplateing at the alteration in the L2 mete occasion manageling for alteration in the L1 mete. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), indidiscernible A2 is aggravate bilingual than indidiscernible AI, and B2 is aggravate bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the alteration in L2 manageling for alteration in L1 is attributtelling t o the prescribe of bilingualism, and this alteration should be akin in a dogmatical way to impressible power. (Cl . SubjectsAt Spell I (the startning of the Droop Semester), we began by screening all upshot in the kindergarten and primitive-amount classificationatizees in three nurtures in the New Haven common nurture regularity. We wanted to decline from the weigh upshot who paradeed illustration of common displan infirmity. All 180 upshot were administered a Spanish writing of the Peabody Resemble Glossary Trial (SPVT), which is resemblesque in aggravate object behind. On the plea of the removal of the SPVTscores, topics whosecharges was aggravate than I gauge deviation beneath the balance were eliminated. Our trial-naturalized evaluations were agreeing behind a occasion the fames of classificationatizeroom trainmasters. In sum, out of the primal 180, we were left behind a occasion 154 topics, who were papply trialed behind a occasion the relics of the Spell I metes. By Spell 2, closely 6 months behind, 30 of the I54 topics had moved sepaobjurgate from the nurture regularity, leaving US behind a occasion 124 topics. In dissociation (or, aggravate accurately, in removal), a fostering topic at Spell 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain spells that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of counteractd bilingualism, how unanalogous bilingual exemplifications are embedded behind a occasionin it, and how living-souls are cmbcdded behind a occasionin exemplifications.Panel a parades . fanciful counteract tine betwixt LI and LZ abilities. Panel b parades establishment of two unanalogous exemplifications (A and B) behind a occasionin fancifulircd immeasurableness. Panel c parades living-souls behind a occasionin the exemplification spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the weigh as life perfectly unanalogous from the repose of our exemplification. Thus, our definite exemplification for the primitive year of the weigh consisted of 123 topics, and we liberty out of papply argument the relics of the topics. The exemplification of 123 topics contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) primitive amountrs, behind a occasion 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these upshot were of Puerto Rican depression. The balance age was 6 years 0 months, behind a occasion a file from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this common advice, which was availtelling for all topics, we obtained aggravate unfair demographic infomation through a inquirynaire sent to the committers. The inquirynaires were select at Spell 1, and of our exemplification, 88 (72%) responded, some behind a forsake entreat. We permit performed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the inquirynaire repartees would be reasontelling estimates for the example exemplification.We assimilated all availtelling alterables in the weigh betwixt responders and nodresponders and did not meet any burdeny separations in the resources. Thus, we suppose the 88 repartees to be a reasonably unprejudiced avowation of the population exemplificationd. The inquirynaire plea declare that 42% of the topics were born in the United States, the relics in Puerto Rico. The committers permit lived in the continental United States for a balance of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They permit lived at tdevisee fameed harangue for an medium of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), behind a occasion the file extending from I month to 8 years.Tbrief is a balance of . 91 rooms per occupier in the well-acquainted (SD = . 60). Of the crisiss of well-acquainted, 37To are occupied and 63% are vain. Tenure is unconcealededly akin to the estimate of adults in the well-acquainted. Of all inquirynaire respondents, 55% were one-committer crisiss of well-acquainted, and 32% had two adults in the well-acquainted. Of the two-adult well-acquainteds, 64% (18/28) had the crisis occupied, seeing singly 14% (6142) of one-adult well-acquainted crisiss fameedly were occupied. The burdeny community betwixt estimate of adults and tenure, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is alienate behind a occasion the expoundation that one committers in common permit low objurgates of tenure, presumably due in sunder t o the legitimateity that a warinesstaker would be required at sojourn. Singly a minute lad of the topics are externally siblings (790). The median estimate of siblings is 2. In the inquirynaire, we too asked the committers to objurgate the size to which Spanish and English are used betwixt sundry living-souls at sojourn. We procured a 5-summit lamina, behind a occasion 1 selfselfcorresponding to “singly Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “singly English. In all three practictelling displan combinations (adult-child, cadet-sibling, adult-adult), the repartees were heavily skewed inland Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for cadet-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the size of use of Spanish and English at sojourn are eminently correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when generousy, akin privatively behind a occasion the years of sojourn the United States oceanland mentioned precedent, r = + . 34.It answers that the desireer the endure (and the precedent the year of manner) in the United States, the aggravate the dominant displan permeates the sojourn. + Measures The power in Spanish (LI) was assessed by administering an adaption o f the Peabody Resemble Glossary Trial fameed and select by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Affect the English avowment of the Peabody Resemble Glossary Trial (Dunn, 1965). the trial is indivisiblely administered and consists of the cadet choosing a prescribe of glossary items (ordered by increasing agenormed hardy) out of indecent resembled opinions. Wiener et al. gaugeized devisee Spanish avowment on Puerto Rican upshot in New York City. English (L2) power was assessed through Arcollocate A of the glossary trial. We apex to the Spanish trial as SPVTand the English trial as EPVT; when they are flourished by a estimate (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), theestimate apexs to the Spell (1 = droop o r 2 = flow) alterable. We should execute it distinct at this summit that we did not inserve to use these glossary trials as a mete of conception, as is commsingly used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were balancet to be a mete of the apexring-to abilities behind a occasionin each of the two yarns for our bilingual exemplification.It should be illustrious brief that the numerical raw chargess for the two trials are not approximate. That is to say, a cadet who receives a charges of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be opiscarcity equiponderant in his or her apexring-to abilities in English and Spanish. On the other laborer, the SPVT and EPVT permit informd the power to adlawful upshot reliably parallel the appertaining Spanish and English displan progress sizes. In prescribe to validate the SPVT and EPVT as metes of yarn, a throng of 40 upshot behind a occasionin our exemplification was yieldn a narrative-retelling work in the two yarns.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 phrases, paired behind a occasion cartooh resembles. The trialer primitive told the narrative occasion flipping through a resemble compass and, instantly upon example, asked thecadet to utter the narrative cued by the resembles. Thechild’s utterances were tape commemorative and succeedingly transcribed. The protocols were objurgated in a 5-summit lamina, behind a occasion 1 life minimal use of the displan and 5 life generous fluency, by two intopic objurgaters. Singly fluency was arbitratord; correction of the retelling was ignored for this weigh. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The balance ratings for twain English and Spanish were burdenyly corakin behind a occasion the EPVTI and SPVTI chargess, r = . 82 for English rating behind a occasion EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish corcommunity most affectly animadverts the legitimateity that the file of SPVTl chargess was aggravate reposericted than the EPVTI chargess for this apex subsaniplr and too the possibility that the upshot are aggravate Spanish-dominant and a weak narrative-retellihg work may not animadvert separations at eminent razes of linguistic power. We are ordinaryly pursuing papply validation of the vocabularly metes, but for the force venerate that the trials do mirror perfectly accurately our topics’ alteration in power in twain yarns. As a mete of nonoral impressible power, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Radical MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a mete on which the most brawny separations were set betwixt bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert weigh. R a w chargess rather than percentiles were used consequently the trial has not been gaugeized on populations conipartelling to ours.The Raven chargess at Spell I and Spell 2 are briefbehind apexred to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In dissociation to t hcse nieasures, we administered a trial of metalinguistic abili t y (to arbitrator the dogmaticality of Spanish phrases and to expose English opinion embedded in Spanish phrases) and a mete of gregarious perpectivedelivery (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these plea are stagnant in the mode of life stird and are not fameed in this paragraph. Procedures All nieasures were administered indivisiblely at the nurtures ‘in void rooms or quiet hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual trialers.Except for yieldation of the EPVT items, all trialing was conducted in Spanish. Each mete was administered twice, uninterruptedly during the droop semester (Time I ) atid repeatedly in the flow (Time 2). The medium spell lag betwixt the two spells was 6 months. Except for the bustle that SPVTl was administered primitive at thc very startning of the weigh for primal screening, as mentioned precedent behind a occasion regard to exemplification indulgent, prescribe of trials was counterbalanced. At each spell, each cadet was trialed in three sessions, one behind a occasion the SPVT. econd behind a occasion the EPVT, and third behind a occasion the impressible trials. In prescribe that the trialer endure ignorant to the cadet’s power in twain yarns, the selfselfresembling trialer never tes‘ied any sunderichar cadet in twain EPVT and SPVT; future. the topic’s prescribe of bilingualism was noi comprehendn t o ! he trialers until behind example of the plea assemblage. bilingualisin at Spell 1 foretell impressible power at l i m e 2 , or opinionly, does impressible power at Spell I foretell prescribe of bilingualisrn at Spell 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The resources and gauge deviations for Spell I and Spell 2 metes can be set in Ttelling 10. 1. The primitive atlalysis di- vided topics into throngson the bases of tdevisee abilities i n each latiguage. We thronged topics into three razes of EPVT chargess sterile three levcls of S I W chargess, the transversion of which fruits nine throngs. EPVTI raw chargess filed from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw chargess filed from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon error of the plea. we felt that. 0-summit intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw chargess would avow reasontelling flakeing of topics behind a occasion deference to tdevisee abilities, recognizing of plan that the removal is peremptory and conducted barely for purposes of inspecting separations resemblesque in resources. The forthcoming were removals, imposed twain on the Spell 1 and Spell 2 plea: Spanish Flake 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Flake 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Flake 3: SPVT ocean than 60; Engfish Flake I: EPVT 1-20; English Flake 2: EPVT 21-40; English Flake 3: EPVT ocean than 40.Means and gauge deviations for Raven I chargess for each of the nine throngs secure of the transversion of the Spanish and English flakes can be set in Ttelling 10. 2 (a). Error of the resources insinuates strongly that Ravenl resources acception behind a occasion increasing razes of English flakeing. However, this is confounded behind a occasion the ages of the topics in the throngs, as can be observed in Ttelling 10. 2 (b). The next plod was to assess the force of the kinsmenhip betwixt prescribe of bilingualism and impressible power through reposericted correspondence, wbrief EPVTI is corakin behind a occasion Ravenl, manageling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a burdeny communitytial corcommunity coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship betwixt prescribe of bilingualism and nonoral impressible power. TABLE 10. 1 Resources and Gauge Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Exemplification 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Tbrief are t w o sepaobjurgate inquirys we ask of the plea. First, is prescribe of bilingualism akin to impressible power at any one spell? This can be answered by contemplateing behind a occasionin Spell I and behind a occasionin Spell 2 detachedly.Second, does prescribe of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . flake 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Spell 2. The counteractall resources for the metes at Spell 2 can be set in Ttelling 10. 1. The minute resources paraden in Ttelling 10. 3 determine Raven’s razes and age razes when the topics were disconnected into throngs by Spanish and English flakeings using the selfselfresembling criteria as hi Spell 1. The reposericted corcommunity of EPVTZ and Raven2, manageling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Potent for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the kinsmenhip does not alter tangiblely, reposericted corcommunity = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Spell I and Spell 2 plea declare Illat prescribe of bilingualism is akin IO act on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We classifyly precedent that prescribe of bilingualism is dogmatically akin to Ravens at twain spells. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Spell 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 flake 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Flake I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Balance Age lor Bilingual Groups at Spell 2 -~ Froni the committer inquirynaires, we modeobjurgate two metes of the socioecononiic razes of the topics. One was barely whether the crisis of houser reocean was occupied (coded 1) o unoccupied (coded 0). The other was the estimate of rooiiis in tdevisee sojourn, disconnected by the estimate of occupiers.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not akin. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorakin behind a occasion EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for sojourn immeasurableness, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corakin behind a occasion Raven1 manageling for these socioeconomic alterables i n dissociation to age and SPVTl, the kinsmenhip is stagnant signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, reposericted corcommunity = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Corcommunity Matrix lor Displan and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . plea advantageous.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, tenure, and sojourn in Plod I; then EPVTI in Plod 2. EPVTl stagnant practiseed a burdeny Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , behind a occasion EPVT adding 4% inland foretelling discord in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our weigh behind a occasion a anxiety that studies fameed in the literary-works did not unambiguously parade that bilingualism fosters impressible harvest. A primitive hardy was that most studies implicated throng coincidences of bilinguals and monolinguals. and accordingly, the upshots could be attributed to throng separations other than displan power.Second, most studies implicated cross-sectional coincidences wbrief cause-consequence kinsmenhips could not be miswell-behaved evaluated. The weigh right fameed executes aggravate feasible the pretension environing the dogmatical proceeds of bilingualism. First, we were uttering to parade an consequence wifhin a exemplification of bilinguals. And forsake, when two opinion patterns for the guide of resultuality were trialed on the desireitudinaldata, the pattern pretensioning prescribe of bilingualism to be the causal amalgamate was aggravate agreeing behind a occasion our obtained plea than the pattern pretensioning impressible power to be the f causal alterable.By the end o the generous classify of this desireitudinal weigh. in which we succeed flourish up the topics for an dissociational 2 years, behind a occasion the dissociation o other impressible metes, we vision to execute an plain stronger pretension ref garding the dogmatical proceeds of bilingualism on impressible abilities. The legitimateity that our plea endure the pretension that bilingualism fosters impressible harvest is right a primitive plod in expoundation the issues at laborer. The inquiry recrement as to how bilingualism affects impressible power, especially when impressible power is meted by act in nonoral works.A desire spell ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual upshot were obduobjurgate to eminent razes of arrangenear cogitation by the future scarcity to sepaobjurgate the engagement from its apexent. In a resembling temper, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) permit insinuateed that the impressible customs of bilingualism could be teached by bilinguals' scarcity l objectify and wield linguistic edifices. Ben-Zeev. for o archetype, discusss that in prescribe to forsake linguistic interlocution bilingual upshot must amplify a ocean apprisedness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' ocean sensitivity to linguistic edifice and object is then infections and commonized to unanalogous oral and nonoral works. The mode by which bilinguals' metalinguistic apprisedness affects act in nonoral tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately teached or beneathstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) weigh insinuates that bilinguals are amend uttering to use displan as a utensil to adviser impressible functioning, increasing tdevisee immeasurableness to memorize inconstruction and manage aggravate consequenceively the unanalogous plods in solving a example. Cognitive-developintellectual re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal legitimateityor? Specifically, we scarcity to comprehend whether Raven2,can be foretelled by prescribe of bilingualism at Spell 1 occasion manageling for the mismismisalienate alterables (including Ravenl), or whether we can teach aggravate discord by foretelling prescribe of bilingualism at Spell 2 by Ravenl occasion manageling for mismismisalienate alterables (including prescribe of bilingualism at Spell I). These opinions are not mutually scientific, of plan, but statistical postponement of one pattern executes the opinion pattern aggravate feasible.The zero-prescribe corcommunity matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be set in Ttelling 10. 4. From the basic inconstruction resemblesque, we trialed two opinion patterns using multiple retirement. The primitive dissociation trialed the trifling supposition that prescribe of bilingualism is not foretelled by Ravens. In a plodwise multiple retirement, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Plod I; then Ravenl was entered in Plod 2. The expressive statistic brief is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The upshots of the dissociation parade that Ravenl does not add burdenyly to the discord avowationed for when manageling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 832. Ravenl gived singly . 3% dissociational discord inland foretelling EPVT2. We classifyinate, then, that the trifling supposition cannot be uncommon. In the forsake dissociation, we trialed the trifling supposition that prescribe of bilingualism does not foretell Raven chargess. In this plodwise multiple retirement, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Plod 1; then EPVTI entered in Plod 2.The upshots parade a burdeny Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 643. EPVTI gived 4. 1% dissociational discord inland foretelling RavenZ, plain when the other alterables were entered primitive, Thus, we decline the trifling supposition in gift of the expoundation that prescribe of bilingualism affects nonoral impressible power. To manage for socioeconomic raze. we determined to trial the upshots manageling for eniployment and sojourn immeasurableness for the 77 topics for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I pursuit parades an increasing use of oral interference in the act of nonoral works behind a occasion increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) inquiry insinuates that act on the Raven trial would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the disentanglement of the matrices. It is practicable, as Diaz (1983) insinuateed, that cadethood bilingualism fosters a rather overforward use of oral interference in the modeing of inconstruction and this, in shape, teachs bilinguals’ improved act on nonoral works.One of the ocean hardies in correspondent such expressive inquirys lies in the legitimateity that most studies in the area permit relied on plea from psychometric trials. To the best of our tendency, tbrief are no advice-processing studies of adolescent bilingual upshot, and it is not distinct what impressible modees or impressible strategies, if any, veracitylargely unanalogousiate bilingual from monolingual upshot. It is approximately unusable, behind a occasion our yield tendency, to amplify a mode pattern of how bilingualism affects upshot’s impressible abilities or accelerates impressible harvest. The harvest (and tentative endure) of a minute pattern relating bilingualism and impressible harvest is stagnant a few years afore. Finally, hypothesis amplifyed at the indidiscernible raze of the cadet must thus-far be akin to the greatr resemble of bilingualism as it occurs in sundry arranges environing the universe. An expressive eminence that must be modeobjurgate in any weigh of the proceeds of bilingualism is betwixt implied versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is akin to the eminence betwixt aristocracy versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an implied office. upshot acquire tdevisee forsake displan in dissociation to tdevisee primitive, thus creating counteractd bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) lately put it: “an implied arcollocate of bilingualism limplies] that these upshot, behind a occasion no fright of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or aggravate alien yarns to tdevisee accumulating aptitudes, and advantage immensely from the test, impressiblely, gregariously, and plain economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive office, the forsake displan partially supplys the primitive. To cite Lambert and Taylor (1981) uninterruptedly repeatedly: “the hyphenated American cadet, affect the French-Canadian cadet, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual passage as shortly as he/she enters a nurture wbrief a eminent prestige, gregariously masterful, dominant displan affect English is introduced as the scientific displan of tendency [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) summited out, studies that permit paraden dogmatical proceeds of bilingualism systematically are conducted in offices of implied bilingualism.